Consultant from February 2020 to August 2020 at Founders Fund, LLC, a venture capital firm. From October 2010 to March 2012, Dr. VanDevender served as a physicist at Halcyon Molecular, Inc., a company focused on DNA sequencing technology. From October 2007 to September 2010, he worked as a physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. VanDevender has served on the board of directors of Emulate, Inc., which creates advanced in vitro human models, since June 2018 and on the board of directors of PsiQuantum, a quantum computer company, since September 2017. Dr. VanDevender holds a B.S. in Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
We believe Dr. VanDevender is qualified to serve on our Board of Directors because of his strong scientific background, his experience in various technical roles within the biotechnology industry, as well as his experience operating, evaluating, investing in and overseeing biotechnology companies.
Helen S. Kim. Ms. Kim joined our board of directors in August 2018 and has been Lead Independent Director since January 2022. Since April 2019, Ms. Kim has been a Managing Director of Vida Ventures, LLC, a venture capital firm. From March 2018 to March 2019, Ms. Kim was a Partner at The Column Group, a venture capital firm. Ms. Kim was the Executive Vice President, Business Development at Kite from June 2014 to January 2018. From August 2009 to January 2012, Ms. Kim worked at NGM Biopharmaceuticals Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, serving in the role of Chief Business Officer from August 2009 to July 2012 and Strategic Advisor from July 2012 to November 2014. From 2007 to 2008, she served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of Kosan Biosciences Inc., a pharmaceutical company, prior to the sale of the company to Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. Prior to this, Ms. Kim held various executive and leadership positions at Affymax, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company and subsidiary of Amgen Inc., Protein Design Labs, Inc., a technology company, and Chiron Corporation, a biotechnology company and a subsidiary of Novartis AG. From August 2003 to November 2007, Ms. Kim also served as Chief Program Officer for the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, a nonprofit organization. Ms. Kim has served as a member of the board of directors of A2 Biotherapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, ReCode Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, IconOVir Bio, Inc., a biotechnology company, Aktis Oncology, a biopharmaceutical company, Assembly Biosciences, Inc., a biotechnology company, Exicure, Inc., a biotechnology company, Sunesis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a pharmaceutical company, and ForSight Vision4 Inc., a biotechnology company, until it was acquired by Roche Holding Ltd. Ms. Kim holds a B.S. in chemical and biomedical engineering from Northwestern University and an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. In addition, the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market require that, subject to specified exceptions, each member of a listed company’s audit, compensation and corporate governance, and nominating committees be independent. Audit committee members and compensation committee members must also satisfy the independence criteria set forth in Rule 10A-3 and Rule 10C-1, respectively, under the Exchange Act. Under the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, a director will only qualify as an “independent director” if, in the opinion of that company’s board of directors, that person does not have a relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director.
To be considered to be independent for purposes of Rule 10A-3 and under the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, a member of an audit committee of a listed company may not, other than in his, her or their capacity as a member of the audit committee, the board of directors or any other board committee: (1) accept, directly or indirectly, any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from the listed company or any of its subsidiaries or (2) be an affiliated person of the listed company or any of its subsidiaries.
To be considered independent for purposes of Rule 10C-1 and under the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, the board of directors must affirmatively determine that each member of the compensation committee is independent, including a consideration of all factors specifically relevant to determining whether the director has a relationship to the company which is material to that director’s ability to be independent from management in connection with the duties of a compensation committee member, including, but not limited to: (1) the source of compensation of such director, including any consulting, advisory, or other compensatory fee paid by the company to such director and (2) whether such director is affiliated with the company, a subsidiary of the company or an affiliate of a subsidiary of the company.
Our Board of Directors undertook a review of its composition, the composition of its committees, and the independence of our directors and considered whether any director has a material relationship with us that could